Michael Wood (


I wrote these notes several years ago. If I were writing them now I would revise Part 3 along the lines of these papers:

Simple Methods for Estimating Confidence Levels, or Tentative Probabilities, for Hypotheses Instead of P Values, Methological Innovations, 2019.

How sure are we? Two approaches to statistical inference. (2018). arXiv:1803.06214 [stat.OT] or click here.


These notes are intended as a brief introduction to statistics as applied to management, education, science, etc. Iíve tried to include only concepts and methods which are useful or widely used (or both!), and focus on intuitive meanings rather than complicated formulae. (There is a more recent perspective here.)


Introduction to statistics - why, what and how?


Part 1: Histograms, averages, measures of spread, probability and the normal distribution

Part 2: Scatter diagrams, correlation coefficients (Kendallís and Pearsonís) and regression

††††††††† Ö and some more detail on the method of Least Squares Ė using the Excel Solver

Part 3: Null hypothesis tests and confidence intervals

††††††††† Ö and the randomization test (a resampling method using an Excel spreadsheet)

Part 4: More on regression: multiple regression, p values, confidence intervals, etc


Practical aspects of using statistics for research (data and data entry, graphs and tables, Excel and SPSS)

††††††††† Ö and a Video on SPSS


Excel spreadsheets

You Tube videos


If you see any mistakes in these notes, or have any comments or suggestions for improvements, please email me at I am grateful to several people who have given feedback; these include Michele Lundy, Reza Nemat and Smita Amin.